Main Article Content
Abstract. Introduction. The article considers and analyses the historical features of cultural heritage sites the protection abroad, as well as the possibility of using best foreign experience in the field of monument protection in Ukraine. A review of monument protection legislation and principles of public administration of Ukraine, as well as the role of cultural heritage in the life of Ukrainian people. The national features of identification, research, accounting, protection, preservation and use of cultural heritage monuments in Ukraine are highlighted.
Formulation of the problem. There are as many countries in the world as there are practices for their own cultural heritage protection, its preservation, use and promotion. Every country in the world strives to protect and preserve its national cultural heritage as effectively as possible. However, no state today can stand aside from globalization processes, including in the field of cultural heritage protection. Therefore, there is a permanent exchange of best practices between countries in the field of monument protection, as well as the active work of international organizations in this area.
International cultural heritage protection consists in cooperation and assistance to states in identifying and preserving world heritage. There is constant monitoring, which allows monitoring the condition of natural and cultural sites and provide the necessary support to those countries that do not have the material and financial resources to preserve them.
Ukraine, of course, needs to study the history and best practices of other countries in the field of cultural heritage protection, but to adopt the latter selectively, in fragments, taking into account Ukrainian history, the realities of today and the mental characteristics of our people.
Objective. To analyse the historical aspect of cultural heritage monuments protection abroad and its significance for the monument protection industry of Ukraine.
The research methodology is based on a system of theoretical principles (systematics, historicism, objectivity, etc.), logical methods (analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, analogy, hypothesis, etc.) and specific research tools that have highlighted the historical aspect of cultural protection heritage abroad and its significance for the monument protection industry of Ukraine.
The main results of the research are study, analysis, generalization and systematization of the foundations of the international system of cultural heritage protection, as well as consideration of the features of the monument protection industry of Ukraine.
The scientific novelty of the research results of the article is the analysis of the international system of cultural heritage protection and best practices of other states in the field of monument protection and compliance of the cultural heritage of Ukraine with these standards.
Conclusions and specific suggestions of the author. In 1992–1995, the objective of the policy in the field of culture of independent Ukraine was to preserve state and state-public institutions, the spiritual heritage of Ukrainian people. In this difficult period, the period of geopolitical changes, our state has embarked on its personal path of development of cultural heritage protection. From 1991 to 2000, the legislative and regulatory framework of the monument protection industry was being formed. The key and significant event of this period was the adoption in 2000 of the Law of Ukraine «On Cultural Heritage Protection». An important milestone in the monument protection life of Ukraine was the creation of the State Register of Immovable Monuments of Ukraine, which was declared in this law.
It should be noted that since the above law, unfortunately, the Regulations on the State Register of Immovable Monuments of Ukraine, the procedure for its maintenance, its structure, electronic accounting and monitoring system have not been developed and adopted. In our opinion, the introduction of an electronic version of this register should be an important step in the field of monument protection in Ukraine. There is a lot of discussion on this topic at all levels, there are even some developments, but in reality, the case has not moved from the «deadlock». By the way, all neighbouring countries of Ukraine have long had similar registers. We are convinced that the launch and operation of this version of the State Register of Immovable Monuments of Ukraine in our country is artificially and purposefully hampered by various commercial and non-commercial groups of influence interested in this. Of course, the introduction of an electronic version of this register would remove most of the corruption risks in the field of cultural heritage protection.
It is clear that there are many unresolved issues in this area that have accumulated over the years. In particular, the activities of «black» archaeologists, who are all over the world, but each state has developed its own method of combating them (a clear example of the above Britain). We believe that it is necessary to study the history and best practices of other countries in the field of cultural heritage protection, but it is necessary to adopt the latter selectively, in fragments, taking into account Ukrainian history, current realities and mental characteristics of our people.
Summing up, we note that the most important for our citizens are the following challenges facing Ukraine: preservation of statehood and the state of Ukraine, restoration of sovereignty and territorial integrity, return of real power to the middle of Ukraine (Ukrainian people), reconstruction of the national economy and, consequently, exit on the complex crisis (economic, political, social, educational and scientific, cultural, medical, demographic, administrative-territorial crisis, the crisis of the so-called elites and public administration), etc. However, among all these issues on the agenda of Ukraine, we must not forget about the monument protection industry as part of the general culture of the people, because ultimately the preservation and protection of monuments along with the above tasks will still help Ukraine as a state and to bring up growing fields worthy and worthy of its citizens.
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