Main Article Content
Introduction.The Second World War gave rise to many phenomena that, according to scale and effects, reached not only the geographical latitudes and the number of victims, but also formed a radical change in values and triggered the irreversible course of ongoing discussions and revisions of the past for all future generations. During the analysis of world history of the XX century, while experts explain the phenomenon of the crimes that were committed against humanity, the Holocaust theme is relevant for almost a hundred years. The Shoah gives an in-depth understanding of the tragedy of the Second World explains the contemporary periodic manifestations of intolerant attitudes towards representatives of national minorities in many countries of the world. Today, the events of the Holocaust are gradually becoming a new reflection and formation the policy of the memory of nations. However, breaking stereotypes and building constructive images among the society is still difficult. In most states, contradictions about the consequences of the Shoah arise where the specialists were unable to destroy the Soviet templates.
Purpose. This year, Bulgarian society celebrates 75 years since the Day of rescue of Jews, when they tried to deport to the death camps. The heroic struggle of the Bulgarian people was impressive in its scale. During mass demonstrations in Bulgaria against killing Jews and salvation from the death of 50 thousand victims, the state for a long period entrenched the title of "state without anti-Semitism". In historical science, these events have controversial aspects, because in addition to saving Bulgarian authorities are accused of the deportation of Jews to the death camps from the newly affiliated territories of Vardar Macedonia, Thrace and Bilomoria. Therefore, in this regard, it is worth mentioning the preconditions and reasons for those events, and on what requirements of Germany planned and partially implemented the deportation of Jews for destruction.
Methods. In the process of research, I followed the chronological method. Because through gradual reconstruction of the past in a scientific research, I outlined the gradual course of events, which preceded the signing and execution of the decision to deport the Jews of Bulgaria. In addition, logical, synchronous and dichroic methods used to help display the articles of the event, which characterize the phenomena of the Second World War not only in Bulgaria, but also in the countries that surround this state and are in the circle of interests. In order to show the Holocaust as deeply as possible, I also used the statistical method through which I expressed the number of victims that were subject to deportation in quantitative terms.
Results. As follows, the article is outlined major events, treaties, records and protocols, which demonstrate the involvement of the Bulgarian government in plans for the deportation of Jews in Bulgaria. The study contains a number of sources that illustrate the wording of the authorities regarding discriminatory measures for the Jewish people.
Originality. In Bulgaria, often the focus is on the Salvation of the Jewish people during the Second World War. However, scientific evidence of involvement in a crime is less frequently used. Moreover, society is trying not to mention the documents of orders and treaties that dealt with deportation. In the article, I tried to portray all the events and intentions about the deportation of Jews of Bulgaria within its new borders, which formed in 1941.
Conclusion.Today in Bulgaria, many controversial historical moments relate to the responsibility and arrangements of the German and Bulgarian forces to destroy 11,343 Jews from the Aegean region. In contrast, there is also a series of archival documents showing the anti-Semitic activities of the Bulgarian administration and the gradual steps in "The final solution to the Jewish question". Every year, the conflict of national memory of the Holocaust is increasing in Bulgaria, and the question of the right of the state to celebrate the national holiday of 9 March as the day of salvation of Jews is open.
I see my further task of studying documents and oral history that will help resolve the debate over whether the Holocaust was in the Bulgarian lands.
Bulgaria i Vtorata svetovna voyna (1939-1945 g.) (Bulgaria and the Second World War (1939-1945)). Retrieved from http://archives.bg/wars/ww2 (In Bg.)
Tashev, S. (2012). Holokostat vav Vardarska Makedonia i Belomorieto prez 1943 g. i negovoto savremenno izmerenie (Holocaust in Vardar Macedonia and the Aegean in 1943 and modern dimension). Sofia (In Bg.)
Holokostat i spasyavaneto na balgarskite evrei. Bulgaria – svoenravniyat sayuznik na ІІІ Rayh (The Holocaust and the rescue of the Bulgarian Jews. Bulgaria - the paramilitary ally of the Third Reich). (2011). Retrieved from http://avdesigngroup.org/shalom/category8_bg.htm (In Bg.)
Lektsia za mezhdunarodno-pravnia status na Vardarska Makedonia i Belomorieto prez 1941-1944 g. (Lecture on the international legal status of Vardar Macedonia and the Bilomoria in 1941-1944.). (2013). Retrieved from http://www.eurochicago.com/2013/01/lektsiya-za-mezhdunarodno-pravniya-status-na-vardarska-makedoniya-i-belomorieto-prez-1941-1944-g/ (In Bg.)
Bar Zohar, M. (1998). Beyond Hitler’s grasp (In Eng.)
Todorov, Ts. (2013) Krehkostta na dobroto – Chast 1 (The Fragility of Goodness - Part 1.). Retrieved from http://www.librev.com/index.php/2013-03-30-08-56-39/discussion/bulgaria/1989-1 (In Bg.)
Grinberg, N. (1945). Dokumenti (Documents). Sofia, The Central Consistory of Jews in Bulgaria (In Bg.)
Silata na grazhdanskoto obshtestvo: sadbata na balgarskite evrei (The power of civil society: the fate of the Bulgarian Jews). (2014). Retrieved from http://archive.is/mT54b#selection-4567.1-4585.164 (In Bg.)
Yad Vashem.Memorial complex of the history of the Holocaust. Sud’ba evreev v Evrope. Unichtozhenie evreev Balkan i Slovakii (The fate of the Jews in Europe. Destruction of the Jews of the Balkans and Slovakia). Retrieved from http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/ru/holocaust/about/chapter_9/balkans.asp (in Russ.)