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Abstract. The purpose of the study is to highlight the cooperation between the Social Democratic Union and the peasantry of Ukrainian provinces in the period of the government reaction of 1907-1910, according to the materials of "Pravda" newspaper.
The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the author investigated the issue of cooperation between the Ukrainian Social Democratic Union and the peasants in the conditions of the government reaction, which began in the Russian Empire in June 1907. The reports of local organizations about their activities, which were sent to the editorial board, are compared in detail with intelligence data of the secret police; verified the information about the situation and main tasks of the RSDLP (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party) organizations in Ukrainian villages of the Russian Empire in 1907-1910.
Conclusions. The events of the 1905-1907 revolution forced the Social Democrats to turn their attention to the peasantry as one of the largest social strata participating in revolutionary uprisings. In the competitive struggle with the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, the Ukrainian wing of the RSDRP - the Bund - was able to quality organzed work in the villages. However, in the conditions of government repression that began in 1907, its organizations suffered greatly, which forced the Bund members to restore the work of destroyed organizations and create new ones. To this end, the newspaper "Pravda" was revived to consolidate the party movement, inform local Marxists about the state of affairs in the RSDRP, and serve propaganda literature to implement the main tasks they carried out in the villages. The main direction of work with the agricultural proletariat was recognized by the Bund members as agitation and determination of the place of the peasant protest movement, dissemination of revolutionary literature, facilitation of the organization of rural party centers, and holding local conferences. However, in the conditions of police persecution, such activity of local members proved to be quite problematic and non-systematic, and interaction with the agrarian proletariat was episodic and was solely based on their initiative and the sympathies of social democrats workers. Under such conditions, representatives of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Party (USDP) implemented a new tactic of cooperation with peasants, organizing consumer cooperatives through which they tried to exercise social democratic representation in local government bodies.
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