Iranian Question of Soviet and European Politics is in an intermilitary period

Main Article Content

Viktoriya Pylypenko


Introduction. The end of the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1921 by a victory of Bolshevist Russia promoted not only the emergence of the new state on the international scene which had the ambitions of the world leader, but also provoked the expansion of the horizons of a big game between Moscow and London to the Middle East. Having considerable deposits of oil and, actually, controlling the transit corridors of the states of the Persian Gulf, Iran, since 1921, becomes the main point of opposition between the Soviet Russia and England, and from the moment of Hitler`s Germany interest, comes to the agenda of the European Middle East policy. However, despite a key role in a formation of foreign policy doctrines of the Soviet Union, England, and further - the USA and Germany, the Iranian factor in the policy of the post-war Europe half learned and needs the further research.

Purpose. On the basis of the foregoing, the purpose of the article is to investigate the Soviet-Iranian relations in the context of the transfer of the Iranian question to the European political map.

Methods. The solution of the specific research objectives passed through the use of the general and special scientific methods of the historical science and international relations theory. The analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, the logical and historical unity belong to the general scientific methods. The attraction of a of scientific induction method for allocation of the geo-economical, information and political aspects of the Soviet-Iranian relations, gave the chance, after having synthesized the conclusions received earlier, to understand an essence of the Middle Eastern policy of the USSR and a position of Moscow on the international scene in the solution of the regional problems, which were directly connected with Iran.

However, in details it is possible to investigate the multidirectionality and specifics of the Soviet policy in Iran, thanks to a number of special methods of the research: chronological, historical and system, historical and comparative, historical and typological and a method of a flashback.

Results. In the course of writing of the article it was defined that the Iranian policy of the USSR was hereditary from the imperial Russia and it was directed to prevention of England`s control over oil pools and transit trade through the Persian Gulf controlled by Tehran. However, the formation of the Versailles and Washington system in the international relations gradually brought out of a shadow the USA and Germany in the Middle East, turning them into the number of the powerful rivals of Moscow and London. Strengthening of the challenge of the economically active states promoted the transformation of the Middle Eastern strategy of the USSR. New aspects of the Soviet-Iranian relations, developed in the 1920th years will lay the foundation of the economic doctrine of the Kremlin to the date of the Islamic revolution of 1979 and will become a reliable basis of a gradual replacement from Tehran of English and later the American capital.

Originality. The scientific novelty of this research consists of that the author tries to generalize the main aspects of the formation of the Soviet-Iranian relations in the first half of the 20th century, the formation of which happens against the background and under the influence of the reformatting of a system of the international relations in general and the European regional policy in particular.

Conclusion. So, the formation of the Soviet-Iranian relations happened against the background of the revision of concession agreements with the imperial Russia, in conditions of the constant competitive opposition for the control over the energy resources from England, which had stable financial interests in this state, and the ambitions of Germany which sought to establish the individual control over all states of the Persian Gulf. The subject needs the further studying, especially in the matter of the Soviet-German opposition for the control over the Middle East region.

Article Details



Documents of the USSR foreign policy. (1965). V. 10. Moscow .: Publishing house of political literature (in Russ.)

Aliyev, S.M. (2004). The History of Iran, the 20th Century. Moscow: IW RAS: Kraft (in Russ.)

Archive of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation, Moscow (WUA RF), f. 94. Referentura Iran, op. 5a, p. 105, d. 1. Reports of employees of the USSR Embassy in Persia, 1922, 377 l. (in Russ.)

Rouhani, F. (1998). Oil industry after nationalization. Tehran (in Iran)

WUA RF, f. 129. Referentura USA, op. 63, p. 317, d. 76. Outgoing notes of the USSR Embassy in Iran to the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1977, 282 (in Russ.)

Vasilyeva, O. A. (2014). The Soviet-Iranian Treaty of 1921. Scientific. statements Belgorod. state un-that. Ser .: Philosophy. Sociology. Right, 29, 16 (187), 113-118 (in Russ.)

Vasilyeva, O. A. (2014) The problem of concessions, the demarcation issue and the Soviet-Iranian trade and economic ties in the 1920s. Twentieth century. Scholarly notes of Oryols State University. Ser .: Jurisprudence, №4 (60), 227 – 231 (in Russ.)

Yusupov, I. А. (1969) Establishment and development of the Soviet-Iranian relations (1917-1927). Tashkent: Publishing House "FAN" of the Uzbek SSR (in Russ.)

WUA RF, f. 94. Referentura Iran, op. 4a, p. 105, d. 1. Correspondence of employees of the USSR Embassy in Tehran, 1922, 270 l (in Russ.)

Orlov, E. A. (2001). Russia and Iran in the Twentieth Century (Main Stages of Relationships. Iran: Islam and Power. Moscow: IW RAS: Kraft, 193-206 (in Russ.)

Kocheshkov, A. (2010). North Iranian oil: from the history of diplomatic battles. Intern. a life. Special issue. : Oil of Russia in the XXI century. Retrieved from (in Russ.)

Aliyev, S.M. (1985). Oil and the socio-political development of Iran in the twentieth century. Moscow: Science (in Russ.)

Mishustina, D. (1938). Trade relations of the USSR with the countries of the East. Moscow: Intern. Prince (in Russ.)

Mamedova, N. M. (2010). The Soviet Union and Iran (1933–1945). Moscow: IW RAS (in Russ.)

Agaev, S. L. (1981). Iran in the past and present: ways and forms of the revolutionary process. Moscow: Science (in Russ.)