Politics in the field of culture of the earth liberals of the northern least breakdown (60 – 80th ХІХс.)

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Nazar Kotelnitsky


Introduction. The history of the zemsky liberal movement on the Ukrainian lands of the Russian Empire is an actual and extremely ill-considered problem of Ukrainian historical science. In historiography, the idea of the participation of liberal zemstvo in the imperial liberation movement of 70-80 pp is more or less integral. XIX century however, the whole range of activities of the opposition still remains the attention of the corporation of Ukrainian scholars, in particular - the issue of cultural policy.

 Purpose. Unfortunately, in Ukrainian historiography there are no scientific studios on the given problem. Therefore, the purpose of this publication is to form a holistic view of the main directions of zemsky liberals in this direction. The source for the article became sources of source of personal origin and the fundamental basis of work on the history of zemstvo institutions - meeting journals and verbatim reports of provincial and district zemstvo assemblies.

Results. Аccording to the principled insistence of the liberals, local authorities of the ukrainian Polissya received solely autonomous technical capacities for independent publishing activity. liberal landowners of the ukrainian Polissya became not only the founders of the first public library in the region, but also its patrons and benefactors. In the era of the Counter-Reforms era in the Russian Empire, they essentially became its sponsors and saviors, since only the efforts of the liberals headed by Chernihiv City Bank solved the problem of financing the institution and then building an infrastructure base. liberal peasants in every way supported the initiatives in perpetuating the historical memory of prominent figures of ukrainian culture - both through educational methods and economic instruments, in particular, a commercial subscription for the implementation of projects. Much attention also deserves the fact that zemstvo liberals categorically and principledly defended the right of the absolute majority of the population of the Northern Left Bank - Ukrainians, to read, study, and use literature in their native - ukrainian language. In the conditions of the actual prohibition of ukrainianity, the full scale anti-ukrainian legislation of Russian despotism - the Valuev Circular (1863) and the Ems Act (1876), the institutional introduction of artificial, imperial terminology in relation to the "ukrainian world" and ukrainian ethnic lands, such as - Little Russia, South-Western Region, colonized by the ukrainian ethnic group - Novorossiia, the above-mentioned measures of the opposition can be considered acts of revolutionary style aimed at a comprehensive and wide-ranging national revival of Ukrainian rayan nation. Historical sources undeniably testify that the liberal peasants of the ukrainian Polissya, even under the anti-ukrainian policy of the Russian monarchy, were not afraid to publicly declare their civil and political position regarding the problems of cultural and national life in the empire, thus representing their principled and categorical opposition to the autocratic regime .

Conclusion.Summing up, we can confidently assert that the activity of zemstvo liberals of the Northern Left Bank in the field of culture has become a complete, self-sufficient and integral part of the humanitarian policy of the opposition movement in general. The main areas of this work were: the establishment and creation of exclusively zemstvo editions - print media; the acquisition of the property of the institutions of zemsky self-government technical facilities for the autonomous provision of publishing activities of zemsky institutes; Establishment and creation of the first public public library in the region; initiatives on immortalizing historical and national memory of the outstanding figures of Ukrainian culture, including the great writers; the personal involvement of liberals in artistic and various opposition cultural projects and events. Under conditions of the imperial and chauvinistic policy of Russian despotism, complete unification and the actual prohibition of Ukrainianity, the ethnonational direction of the cultural activity of liberal zemstans deserves great respect, which was aimed at stimulating the processes of a comprehensive revival of the Ukrainian nation. Given the fact that the field of cultural activity under the zemsky law was related to the unnecessary budgetary expenditures, we have reason to speak about the ascetic, modern nature of the policy of zemsky liberals in this area.

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