The formation of objective grounds of Poland state revival

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Vladislav Boyechko


Introduction. The article analyses the colonial state of Polish lands as a constituent part of states-empires: Russian, German and Austria Hungarian at the beginning of the XX-th century. Polish people were in the condition of cultural, economic and political discrimination, pressed by the empire domination. Difficult condition was combined with religious suppression of Polish people, it caused mass opposition of population. It is determined that revolutionary events of 1905-1907 in the Russian Empire contributed to the political activity of wide layers of population of the Polish Kingdom, Velikopolshcha and other Polish lands. It is found out that life conditions of the Polish population depended on the condition in the states-empires which divided Polish lands between themselves. It is investigated that at the beginning of the XX-th century objective preconditions for revival of the independent state were formed in the Polish society.

The purpose of our article is to investigate the formation of objective prerequisites for the restoration of the Polish state.

Results. The formation of the Second Commonwealth is due to the difficult situation of the Polish lands within the empires. The objective condition for the restoration of Poland was the colonial policy pursued by Austria, Prussia and Russia. The presses of the empire dominated the Polish people were in a state of economic, cultural and political discrimination. The forms of national oppression and living conditions depended directly on the situation in the countries that incorporated the Polish lands. In the Kingdom, the Polish tsarist government pursued a policy of intensive Russification and unification of Polish lands with the rest of the Russian Empire, repression of the population. Politics of Poles' Discrimination in Public Life, which was carried out by the tsarist Kingdom of Poland, caused dissatisfaction and protest of the population, the growth of its socio-political activity for the restoration of cultural, social, political rights and freedoms. The wave of revolutionary events of 1905-1907 in the Russian Empire also captured Poles, causing the activation of public-political life. And although it was disappointing, the Poles managed to use this time to revive traditions, to acquire new socio-political ideas.

Conclusion. An analysis of the situation of the Polish lands in the Russian, German and Austro-Hungarian empires suggests that the colonial policy of the empire states at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries led to the strengthening of national liberation movements, the development of socio-political thought about the freedom and sovereignty of each people, in particular, the right to an independent Polish state. At the beginning of the XX century. there were objective prerequisites for the restoration of the Polish state. Influence on the politicization of Polish society was made by the revolutionary events of 1905-1907 in the Russian Empire, and subsequently the beginning of the First World War. Despite this, the policies of the official Vienna, Berlin and St. Petersburg combined the use of human potential and wealth of the country, obscurity and Russification, the destruction of national cultures, the persecution of liberation movements, the restriction of the rights and freedoms of Poles and the image of their national feelings.

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