The khutir system of farm land-tenure at the beginning of 20th century: governmental politics and market tendencies

I. Zhilenkova

Abstract


Specific of farm land-tenure system in Russian Empire at the beginning of 20th century is analyzed. Changes in the governmental politics during mentioned period is characterized. Influence of market tendencies on development of agricultural reforms project is determined. It is found out that revolutionary events of 1905–1907 took a great part in this process, position of squires and real possibilities of economy. However, plans on fast destruction of peasant society first of all had political reasons. It is shown that zemstva, societies of agriculture and other public organizations stood on expansion of investments and materially-mechanical base of agriculture. In practice, destruction of peasant society, stimulation of development of agrarian property and squire landownership became the main idea of reform. Besides, efforts of government were concentrated on creation of layer of rich peasants on farms, who migrated to Asian parts of Russian Empire. It is proved that realization of agricultural program was successful in those regions where peasants concentrated in their hands not only their own part of public land but also the land, which was bought from squires and state by Peasant land bank.

Keywords


Khutir; Rural society; landowning; agriculture; Russian Empire

References


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