The development of the global and national food science in the 19th - early 20th centuries: historical aspect

N. Levytska, L. Syniavska

Abstract


Introduction. Nutrition of the population belongs to the most important factors that determine the health of the nation, its potential and development prospects. Healthy nutrition is the key of active lifetime, increased resistance of the organism to adverse environmental impacts, it ensures normal growth and development of children, is a key condition for progress and quality of life. Today, healthy food is called «food of the 21st century» and the strategic task of processing and food industries is the production of healthy food. So rather relevant is reference to the history of formation and development of the world food science, which took place in the 19th - early 20th century.


Purpose of the article is to study the history of formation and development of the world food science in the 19th - early 20thcentury.


Methods. In this paper various methods are used, such as those of cognition, historiographical analysis and synthesis, historical, problem-chronological, comparative, behavioral, cultural, content analysis, critical discourse analysis and others.


Results. The paper investigates the history of the formation and development of food science in the 19th - early 20thcentury. Attention is focused on the grounds of emergence of food science. It is proved that the science of nutrition is originated from the use by scientists of that time of the physical processes, such as separation and isolation of various substances and compounds. Data were obtained about the relationship between the chemical composition of foods and living organisms. In the 19th century with the development of scientific and technological progress a qualitative leap in the development of food science occurred. It got the status of modern science. The development and establishment of modern history of food science begins from 40’s of the XIX century. It is in those years of the XIX century that the rapid development of chemistry and biochemistry of nutrition began.


It is noted that in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century food science is marked by such fundamental advances as the discovery of vitamins, amino acids and mineral substances, formation of the concept of food chains, decryption of the catabolism of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates of food to the constituent units followed by the construction in the body of more complex compounds inherent in its tissues. Also established was the idea of food as a source of human energy. These data became the scientific basis for a classical theory of balanced nutrition.


Originality. The directions of food science that emerged during the 19th – early 20th century are analyzed and revealed.


 


Conclusion. In the second half of the 19th – early 20th century there were changes in the nutrition of Europeans thanks to the discovery of new food technologies, further development of the food industry, the emergence of food science. The European type of food at a certain stage of its development was formed as a result of borrowing food from other continents. In the course of long history the relationship between consumers (buyers) and producers (sellers) is constantly improved enriched by experience. It is the level of development of market relations during the historical transformations that was always an indicator of realized potential in a particular society, individual freedom, private initiative, government structures and functions of social institutions, etc., and also determined the degree of consumer protection from the willfulness of a manufacturer, trader and service provider.


Keywords


food science, nutrition, scientists, vitamins, cold, consumerism

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