Implementation of projects of statehood the Rzeczpospolita II political elite in 1917-1918

V. Boyechko

Abstract


Introduction. The gradual process of disintegration of the conservative largest empires during the First World War led to the revival of national liberation movements. The First World War caused major economic and political crisis of Europe and the Russian Empire. In spite of the largest number of victims and material losses in the human history, the war intensified the national political elites of the Nations that were part of empires. At this time there is a gradual lessening of control and management in empires, which firmly held by different peoples under the empire rule. National political elites were the fastest way of formation and self-organization. Polish politicians were beginning to develop projects of self-government, and later possible reconstruction. In the process of completing the war a lot of objective and subjective factors appeared that allowed the Polish nation to create their own statehood in November 1918.


Purpose. The purpose of the proposed research is the analysis based on the sources and historiography of the implementation of projects of statehood of the second Polish Commonwealth Polish political elite in 1917-1918


Methods. On the basis of the analysis of domestic and foreign historiography the article reflects the process of preparation and implementation of projects of the second statehood of the Commonwealth of 1917 – 1918 Polish political elite. Special attention is paid to the influence of objective and subjective factors that significantly increased the activities of the national forces of Poland. The influence of the February revolution of 1917 in Russia, the establishment and operation of the Polish national Committee, the position and activities of J. Pilsudski. It also deals with the activities of the Regency Council and the impact of its decisions on the formation of an independent state.


 


Conclusion. The revival of Polish statehood after the First World War was prepared by the whole national and world history, was a natural result of the state claims of the Polish people, their struggle for independence. In the process of historical testing, social cataclysms, revolutions, and reforms increased the sense of identity in the consciousness of the Poles, which united them into a self-sufficient European nation. The triumph of public affirmation of Poland became the quintessence of the natural development of the Polish people, its history providing the logical conclusion and development. Given the historical, political, socio-economic and spiritual processes in the revival of Poland, it can be argued that the process of formation of independence of the Polish state, as noted above, continued until the international legal settlement of borders and the adoption of the March Constitution. Although the constitutional design of the political system created and further development were considered as unable to solve the above constitutional and legal acts under the pressure of political parties and bitter struggle in the post-war alignment of political forces in view of the efforts and influence of the national-democratic circles.


Keywords


Poland, First world war, revival of the state system, Polish political elite

References


1.      Documents and materials on the history of Soviet-Polish relations (1963). M.: an SSSR, 1963. (in Russ.)

2.      Alexeivec, L. (2002) Novotny history of Poland (1918-1939). K.: Aston (in Ukr.)

3.      Albert, A. (1991) Modern history of Poland 1914-1993. London: Pulse (in Pol.)

4.      Bardach, J. (2003) History of Polish state and law. M.: Pietrzak (in Pol.)

5.       Collection of important laws before the emergence of the Polish State (1869). Warsaw; Krakow: Kięgarnia Czerneckiego (in Pol.)

6.      Garlicki, A. (1990) Joseph Pilsudski: 1867-1935. Warsaw (in Pol.)

 

7.      Pobog-Malinovskiy, V. (1990) Modern political history of Poland. Gdansk: Graf (in Pol.)


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