Zemstvo medical care of children in Kherson province

Valery Semenovuch Yermilov

Abstract


Introduction. In our time in a systemic economic crisis, when budget funds are not enough to solve pressing social problems, has become increasingly important charity. Therefore, the study of the historical experience of care of children for the state, public funds (for example, Zemstvo self-government) is of particular relevance.


Purpose. Therefore, the aim of our study was to find out and show the organization and the status of the provincial care of the most vulnerable parts of the child population of Kherson province orphans and abandoned babies in the second half of XIX – early XX century.


Methods. Using modern methodological pluralism, applied the comparative historical and medical, historiographical and analytical research methods.


Results. In 1837, in Kherson province public charity opened an orphanage. In a submission to the provincial Zemstvo orphanage for 50 children passed in 1865 in the composition of charitable institutions. The house had a very bad status, the number of orphans in it increased with time. Was headed home one of the doctors of the provincial hospital. Provincial Board has decided to withdraw orphanage outside charitable institutions in the best conditions. It managed to be made only in the first half of the 80-ies of the XIX century. For girls, the Zemstvo in 1882 in the centre of the town had its own space nearby for the boys hired a large private room. The total number of children in a foster home with 84 in 1875, had increased to 111 in 1898 Accordingly grew and expenditures of the Zemstvo for the maintenance of orphans: 6250 rubles 1865 to 27922 rubles 1898 In the early 1900s, the provincial Zemstvo has focused on the content in the men's section 70 boys and in the women's section 40 girls. But the maintenance costs are constantly increasing.


The duty of the Zemstvo was also care of abandoned babies. First, the Council continued its practice of public care, paying providers, that took the children-foundlings, the money from the funds of charitable institutions. Then the district Council in 1880, at the provincial hospital arranged a small shelter with permanent mothers. Now planted, the children were not given immediately, as it was before, and nursed for several days and arranged a medical examination of women who have children. To improve care to throw children in the orphanage and nurse the district Council decided in 1891 to refer the matter to the doctor. As a result of medical measures to the mortality of kids has decreased significantly. Provincial Board has repeatedly appealed to the government asking for subsidies for the maintenance of the shelter or the shelter and transfer its functions to the state. But these references, unfortunately, were unsuccessful.


Originality. Is that for the first time conducted a historical reconstruction of components of the provincial custody of children, convincingly delineated the participation in this process is one of the leading Kherson Zemstvo medical organization.


 


Conclusion. Kherson gubernia Zemstvo was actively engaged in the care of the most vulnerable parts of the child population is orphans and Pacinotti babies in such organizational forms as orphanage, an orphanage of babies and attraction of the population by transferring the children to the nurse. Custody of children has improved significantly, when this case came from a local doctor. Over time, the number of children requiring care, constantly growing, funding for guardianship activities constantly increased, and the conditions of detention of children in an orphanage and the shelter unsatisfactory. To attach the state to County custody of the children failed. This issue needs additional and in-depth study.


Keywords


custody of children; orphanage; shelter babies; the nurse; the doctor of the Zemstvo; Zemstvo medicine; Kherson province

References


1.     Raskovic, M. P. (1897, March). Materials for the assessment of the case charity homeless and abandoned children in Russia. Herald of public health, judicial and practical medicine, 108-110; Raskovic, M. P. (1901). Charity abandoned children Kherson province zemstvo. Meeting of the rural and urban physicians and representatives of the administrations of Kherson province (XIV Congress). Kherson, 2, 472-556 (in Russ.)

 

2.     Lebedev, P. N. (1903). An overview of the situation of abandoned children's charity in the Kherson province zemstvo. Medical Chronicle Kherson province, 14, 223-233; Karamanenko, S. N. (1903). Shelter pets Kherson zemstvo Proceedings of the Kherson Zemstvo, 9, 195-225 (in Russ.)

 

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10.  Report of the Kherson Zemstvo council to comply with the provincial assembly Zemsky XXVIІ regular session 1891. Collection of the Kherson Zemstvo (1892), 9, 47-76 (in Russ.)

 

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13.  Report of the Kherson Zemstvo council to comply with the provincial assembly Zemsky HHHІH regular session of 12–22 November 1903 (as of 1 October 1904). Proceedings of the Kherson Zemstvo, 10, 154-157 (in Russ.)

 

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15.  Resolution XV Congress of doctors and representatives of rural and urban councils of Kherson province (September 28 – October 8, 1904). Proceedings of the Kherson Zemstvo, 11, 398-423 (in Russ.)

 

 

16.  General Administrative and Economic Report Kherson provincial district council for 19161917. – B.m.i., b.g.i. – 63 (in Russ.)

 


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