The role of National Cooperatives in the economic transformation of European countries in the first third of the XXth century (Through the example of Germany)
This study focuses on the peculiarities of the cooperative movement in Germany. It is stated that if in the sphere of consumer cooperation Germany succeeded Great Britain, in the sphere of credit cooperation it was the birthplace of two of its types – the urban credit cooperation of G. Schulze-Delitzsch and the rural credit cooperation of R. Raiffeisen. The cooperation was spread, on the one hand, taking into account national peculiarities of the conditions of the consumer cooperation, which at the same time acquired the features of Schulze-Delitzsch’s procurement-distribution or savings and loan cooperatives, while on the other, by the development of a specific agricultural cooperation on the principles of Raiffeisen. It is noted that despite the successful development of agricultural cooperation in Germany, in the 1930s its role gradually diminished with the rapid industrialization and urbanization of the country.
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