LOCALISATION OF TRAKHTEMYRIV IN THE AREAL OF CHERKASY REGION MONUMENTS: HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE ISSUE
Historiography of the mentioned issue has not been studied yet in such dimension. However its sources come back to the medieval, new, pre-revolutionary, soviet and contemporary historiography that proves researchers’ interest, though uneven, within their historical consciousness in the history of Trakhtemyriv land as something legendary and real. Unfortunately at the end of the 1920–s and up to the end of the 1980-s under the specific conditions of the soviet monomethodology when a mutation of the history memory happened this problem was not paid the necessary attention, though archeological works could have given an impulse for the historians’ further scientific researches. After obtaining the independence of Ukraine in 1991 this tendency continued but under the new conditions connected with the methodological reorientation and showing history from the position of national and state direction. Due to the following it is necessary just to primarily, axiomatically find out about the study state of this issue and what attention is paid to it by the modern Ukrainian researchers. We also try to describe the prospects for the deep investigation of this theme already in the modern historical, source–studying and historiographical contexts.
The purpose of the article is to explore the studying process of the offered theme in the Ukrainian and foreign history sciences on the basis of the documentary sources and rich literature according to the defined historiographic periodization.
Historiographic researches of the problem showed that the complete destruction of the architectural buildings, namely castles, temples, palaces, monasteries and fortresses, was caused by the difficult situation in which the Middle Over-Dnieper region was in different periods of population’s living (Tatar-Mongol yoke, boarder territories in the Lithuanian period, Polish ruling and destroying the boarder fortresses and villages by the Russian government, a part of the territory submersion in 1970-s). The same happened to Trakhtemyriv peninsula. The prosperity of Trakhtemyriv (more precise Terechtymyrov) took place at the end of the XVI century. Its decline started at the end of the XVII century, though it was well remembered in the ХІХ century, which is evident from the texts by Taras Shevchenko. The next blow was made to Trakhtemyriv already in the soviet time and during the interval when its master was the notorious I. Bokai. He built a whole castle for the nobility to have a rest after hunting, now it is ruined. Later Trakhtemyriv remained a poorly populated small village. However even after that something was preserved on the mountains praised by Shevchenko. We made the following periodization for the historical development of Trakhtemyriv: the first ancient period (represented by the archeological monuments); the second period «The prince age, history of the Kievan Rus, Galicia-Volyn and Lithuanian-Rus states (ХІ-хVІ centuries)»; the third period «Cossack-Hetman age (ХVІІ – the middle of the ХVІІІ century)»; the fourth period (the second half of the ХVІІІ century – the beginning of the ХІХ century); the fifth period (the middle of the ХІХ century); the sixth period (the end of the ХІХ century – the beginning of the ХХ century); the seventh period (20s – the beginning of the 30s in the ХХ century); the eighth period (the middle of the 1930s – the second half of the 1980s); the ninth period (in the late 1980s and early 1990s – up to nowadays). Studying the historiography of the issue according to the defined period showed that the history of Trakhtemyriv lands is closely connected with the available historical monuments and literature which is fixed on the history of Ukraine almost in all its periods. Analysis of the vast sources and literature proved a considerable though uneven interest to the the history of Trakhtemyriv among archeologists, historians, regional ethnographers and foreign, first of all Polish researchers. Modern Ukrainian scientists prepared separate articles as well as some monographies, namely M. I. Zharkykh, which deserve much attention. Historiography of the issue showed that it is necessary to continue the research of the Trakhtemyriv lands during all historical periods already under the new conditions and pay attention to their soviet and modern periods.
Analyzing the historical and cultural heritage of Cherkasy region we showed the peculiar meaning of Trakhtemyriv and its land for the Ukrainian state due to important events of the Ukrainian history which have happened here. The historical and cultural reserve «Trakhtemyriv» was created here in 1994. The area of the reserve is 590 hectares. The archeological cultural layer of the Trakhtemyriv reserve which was formed due to the settling at this territory during 3–4 thousand years is an especially valuable object of the national heritage of the Ukraine’s people and it is an inseparable part of the all-European inheritance. The scientific research of the history especially the cultural layer of the reserve plays an important role in exploring the historical past which will contribute to the people’s spiritual enrichment and its patriotic upbringing. The archeological cultural layer contains not only findings from the midi–bronze age (three-field system and other cultures) up the late Middle Ages but also ruins of the buildings, houses and ancient burial grounds which characterize the material and spiritual culture of the peoples who have lived her. According to the world practice we refer some evicted settlements to the category of the archeological objects which have the status of the historical settlements mentioned in the historical sources of the ХI–ХVIII centuries. They are: Buchak, Zarubyntsi, Trakhtemyriv and Monastyriok. All cemeteries are to be registered, conserved and preserved irrespective of their foundation time. There are 81 archeological, 9 historical and 9 natural monuments on its territory. Among them are the following: a site of the Mousterian culture (120–130 thousand years ago), Trakhtemyriv Scythian site of ancient settlement, temple ruins of annalistic Trakhtemyriv monastery, multi-layer settlement on the mountain Horodky, Cossack cemetery in the village Trakhtemyriv, nature monuments: Kaniv’s dislocations, reserved area, Rozhyna Krynytsia. The development of the historical thought with its understanding the history of the Trakhtemyriv land happened at the beginning of the ХІ century starting from Nestor-the annalist, due to the annalists of the Lithuanian-Polish age, the Cossack annalists (Grabianka, S. Velychko, Samovydets and others) up to the author of «The History of Ruses», D. Bantysh-Kamenskyi, by means of preserving the national state tradition in the works by M. Maksymovych, M. Kostomarov, T. Shevchenko, M. Hrushevskyi, A. Strozhenko, D. Yavornytskyi, D. Doroshenko, N. Polonska-Vasylenko, B. Rybakov, P. Tolochko, a number of archeologists, especially V. Khvoiko, E. Maksymov, V. Petrashenko and others and modern researchers. However, the biggest contribution into the studying the history of Trakhtemyriv has been made by the modern scientist M. Zharkykh who has cleared its history from the inventions and noncreditable information.
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