THE PROBLEM OF EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS OF WAR AT THE BREST-LITOVSK PEACE CONFERENCE

О. KARABIN

Abstract


The signing of the armistice between the Quadruple Alliance and the countries of the former Russian Empire led to the need to address the issue of exchange of prisoners of war. This issue was resolving at the Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference.On January 27 (February 9), 1918, a peace agreement between the Quadruple Alliance of the one part and the UNR (Ukrainian People's Republic) of the other part was signed.This agreement regulated a number of issues,among which was the exchange of prisoners of war.During its signing,the question of reimbursement of expensesfor the maintenance of prisoners of war sharply arose, but the Ukrainian diplomatshave achieved recognition of those expensesasmutually settled.Austria-Hungaryrefused to ratifyan additional agreementwith theUNR, which was an integral part of Brest-Litovskpeace treaty,therefore, it was losing validity. On February 18 (March 3), 1918, a peace agreement between the Quadruple Alliance and Bolshevik Russia was signed. This agreement also regulated the issue of exchange of prisoners of war between these countries.But the Quadruple Alliance lost the war andthe return of prisoners of war of the former Russian Empire was finally decided as late as in 1920–1921due to a number of agreements between the Bolsheviks and Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey.At that time, Ukrainewasunder the reign ofBolsheviks,therefore,Ukrainian prisoners of war were returned hometogether with the Russian prisoners of war

Keywords


Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference, delegation, agreement,prisoners of war, ratification.

References


Nol’de B.Je. (2001). Itogi 1917 goda. Brestskie peregovory i Brestskij mir.[Results of 1917. Negotiations of Brest-Litovsk and the Treaty of Brest.]. Vestnik Evropy – Vestnik Evropy, 2. Retrieved from: http://russia-west.ru/viewtopic.php?id=816

DatskivI.B. (2010). Dyplomatiia ukrainskykh natsionalnykh uriadiv uzakhysti derzhavnosti (1917 – 1923 rr.) [The diplomacy of Ukrainian national governments in nationhood protection (1917 – 1923).]. Doctor’s thesis. Kyiv. (in Ukrainian).

Datskiv I.B. (2008). Ekonomichni aspekty Brestskoho dohovoru 1918 roku. [Economic aspects of the Treaty of Brest of 1918.]. Mandrivets – Mandrivets, 6, 41 – 47. [in Ukrainian].

Datskiv I.B. (2009). Viiskova konventsiia ta yii rezultaty vidpovidno do Brestskykh uhod 1918 r. [Military Convention and its results in accordance with Brest agreements of 1918.]. Historical Science: in honor of Academician V.A. Smolii. Naukovi pratsi Kamianets-Podilskoho natsionalnoho universytetu im. I. Ohiienka. M-vo osvity i nauky Ukrainy, Kamianets-Podilskyi derzh. ped. un-t. – Thesis of Kamianets-Podilskyi National University named after I. Ohienko, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Kamianets-Podilskyi State Pedagogical University, 19, 313 – 327. [in Ukr].

Datskiv I.B. Ukladennia Tsentralnoiu Radoiu viiskovoi konventsii u vidpovidnosti do Brest-Lytovskykh uhod 1918 r. ta yii naslidky dlia Ukrainy [Conclusion of the Military Convention by the Central Council according to the Brest-Litovsk agreements of 1918 and its consequences for Ukraine.]. Naukovi zapysy Ternopilskoho natsionalnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu im. V. Hnatiuka. – Scientific records of Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatyuk National Pedagogical University, Series: History. Ternopil, 2, 170 – 177. [in Ukr].

DatskivI.B. (2009) Vstanovlennia dyplomatychnykh vidnosyn Ukrainskoi Derzhavy z krainamy Chetvernohosoiuzu. [Establishment of diplomatic relations of Ukrainian state with the states of Quadruple Alliance.]. Vseukrainskyi naukovyi zhurnal “Mandrivets” – Ukrainian scientific journal “Mandrivets”, 2, 45 – 50. [in Ukr].

DeshchynskyiL.Ye. Vidnovlennia pobudovy Ukrainskoi derzhavy ta vstanovlennia dyplomatychnykh vidnosyn v period Tsentralnoi Rady (berezen 1917 – kviten 1918 rr.). [Reconstruction of Ukrainian State and the establishment of diplomatic relations during the period of theCentral Council (March 1917 – April 1918).]. Retrieved from: http://ena.lp.edu.ua:8080/bitstream/ntb/14047/1/2_3-15_Vis724_Armiya.pdf

Yelovskykh U.O. (2010). Dyplomatychni dokumenty yak dzherelo z istorii ukrainsko-nimetskykh vidnosyn doby Tsentralnoi Rady [Diplomatic documents as a source from the history of Ukrainian-German relations of the Central Council.]. Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis: specialty 07.00.06 – Historiography, source studies and special historical disciplines. Donetsk. [in Ukr].

Yelovskykh U.O. (2009). Polozhennia pro obmin viiskovopolonenymy ta internovanymy u poperednikh proektakh i ostatochnomu variant ukrainsko-nimetskoho dodatkovoho dohovoru y akdzhereloz ukrainsko-nimetskykh perehovoriv u Bresti-Lytovskomu (sichen – liutyi 1918 r.) [Regulations on the exchange of war prisoners and interned in previous projects and the final version of the Ukrainian-German treaty as an additional source of Ukrainian-German negotiations in Brest-Litovsk (January – February 1918).]. Hileia – Hylea, issue 28, 158 – 166. [in Ukrainian].

Prytuliak P.P. Ratyfikatsiia Brestskoho myru: za i proty. [Ratification of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: pro and con.]. Retrieved from http://istznu.org/dc/file.php?host_id=1&path=/page/issues/6/pritulyak.pdf

Manasiieva I.V. (2011). Bolhariia ta Ukrainska Narodna Respublika na Brest-Lytovskii myrnii konferentsii: vidstoiuvannia natsionalnykh interesiv. [Bulgaria and the Ukrainian People's Republic in the Brest-Litovsk peace conference: upholding of the national interests.]. Drynovskyi zbirnyk – Drynovskyi collection, vol. 4, 230 – 238. [in Ukrainian].

YarovyiV.I. (2004). NaslidkyukladenniaBrestskohomyrudliaBilorusitaUkrainy: vtratyyzdobutkystoring. [The consequences of making of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk for Belarus and Ukraine, losses and achievements of the parties.]. Minsk: BGU – BSU. Rossijskie i slavjanskie issledovanija – Russian and Slavic research: collection of scientific articles, issue 1, 181 – 190.

MakarYu.I. (2008). Vykhid UNR z Pershoi svitovoi viiny: (myrnyidohovirz Tsentralnymy derzhavamy). [Extrication from the World War I: (treaty of peace with the Central Powers).]. Naukovyi visnyk Dyplomatychnoi akademii Ukrainy – Scientific newsletter of the Diplomatic Academy of Ukraine – Kyiv, issue 14: Zovnishnia polityka i dyplomatiia: istorychna retrospektyva, tradytsii, sohodennia. – Foreign policy and diplomacy: historical retrospection, traditions, present. 211 – 217. [in Ukrainian].

Botushanskyi V.M. (2010). Videnski arkhivy pro ukrainski spravy (Pro Brest-Lytovskim y perehovory shcho doukladennia myrnoho dohovoru z Ukrainoiu). [Viennese archives on Ukrainian affairs (On the Brest-Litovsk peace negotiations on conclusion of the treaty of peace with Ukraine).]. Pytannia istorii Ukrainy. – Issues of History of Ukraine, vol. 13, 249 – 254. [in Ukrainian].

Uska U.R. (2014). Ukladennia ta realizatsiia domovlenostei mizh Avstro-Uhorshchynoiuta UNRu Brest-Lytovskomu 1918 r.: u roky dyplomatychnoi borotby. [The conclusion and implementation of agreements between Austria-Hungary and the UPR in Brest-Litovsk of 1918: lessons on diplomatic battle.]. Visnyk Natsionalnoho universytetu "Lvivska politekhnika". Derzhava ta armiia. – Newsletter of the Lviv Polytechnic National University. The state and the army, No. 784, 120 – 127. [in Ukrainian].

Lytvyn S.Kh. Zvilnennia Ukrainyvidrosiisko-bilshovytskykhviisknavesni 1918 roku (do 90-richchiapodii). [Liberation of Ukraine from the Russian-Bolshevistic military forces in the spring of 1918 (the 90th anniversary of the event).]. Retrieved from: http://istoryk.at.ua/publ/ukrajinska_nacionalno_demokratichna_revoljucija_1917_1920/zvilnennja_ukrajini_vid_rosijsko_bilshovickikh_vijsk_navesni_1918_roku/7-1-0-12

Kudlay O. B. (2008) Creation and activity of the People's Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Ukrainian People's Republic. Doctor’s thesis. Kyiv. (in Ukrainian).

Mihytina I.V. Ukrainskij Brestskij mir [The world that they wanted and that hated: Documentary.]. Moscow: «Evropa», 288.

KsenofontovI.N. Mir kotorij hotelii kotoryj nenavideli: Dokumental'nіj reportazh. [The world that they wanted and that hated: Documentary.]. Moscow: Politizdat – Publishing House of Political Literature, 416.

Danylenko O.V. Viiskovopoloneni, internovaniy bizhentsi na terytoriiy evropeiskykh krain yak obiekt dyplomatychnykh vidnosyn (1919 – 1923 rr.). [Prisoners of war, interned and refugees in the European countries as an object of Diplomatic Relations (1919 - 1923).]. Mizhnarodni zviazky Ukrainy: naukovi poshuky i znakhidky. – International Relations of Ukraine: scientific search and findings, issue 20, 196 – 213. [in Ukrainian].

Saievyi Y.Y. (2007). Viiskovopoloneni ukraintsi v taborakh Avstro-Uhorshchyny i Nimechchyny v period Pershoi svitovoi viiny: vyshkil ta orhanizatsiia pobutu. [Ukrainian Prisoners of war in the camps of Austria-Hungary and Germany during the World War I: training and housekeeping.]. Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis: specialty 20.02.22 – military history. Lviv. [in Ukrainian].

Sarancha V.I. (2011). Viiskovopoloneni Pershoi svitovoi viiny v Kremenchutskomu harnizoni. [Prisoners of war of World War I in Kremenchuk Garrison.]. Kraieznavstvo – Home science, No. 4, 84 – 92. [in Ukrainian].

Kalkutina N. V. (2014) Mizhnarodno-pravove rehuliuvannia viiskovohopolonu ta pravovyi status inozemnykh viiskovopolonenykhv SRSR napochatku XXst. [International legal regulation of military captivity and legal status of foreign prisoners of war in the USSR in the early XX century.]. Naukovyi visnyk Mykolaivskoho derzhavnoho universytetu im. V. O. Sukhomlynskoho. Seriia istorychni nauky. – Scientific newsletter of Mykolaiv National University named after V. Sukhomlynsky. Series of historical sciences, issue 3.37 (105), 63 – 67. [in Ukrainian].

Dmitriieva O.Ie. Viiskovopoloneni chekhy ta slovaky u pravovidnosynakh periodu Pershoi svitovoi viiny. [Czech and Slovak prisoners of war in legal relations of period of the First World War.]. Retrieved from:http://www.historians.in.ua/index.php/en/doslidzhennya/1585-oksana-dmytriyeva-viiskovopoloneni-chekhy-ta-slovaky-u-pravovidnosynakh-periodu-pershoi-svitovoi-viiny

Nakhtihal R. (2010). Darnytskyi tabir viiskovopolonenykh pid chas Pershoi svitovoi viiny. [Darnytsia prisoner of war camp during World War I.]. UIZh – UHJ, No. 49, issue 2, 239. [in Ukrainian].

Kreibert R.V. (2004). Brest-Lytovska myrnauhoda UNR z Tsentralnymy derzhavamy 1918 roku (istoryko-pravovyiaspekt). [The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk of UPR with the Central Powers of 1918 (historical-legal aspect).]. Visnyk, Nats. Un-t. Vnutrishnikh Sprav. – Newsletter, National University of Internal Affairs. Kharkiv, issue 27, 223 – 230. [in Ukrainian].

Mizhnarodni vidnosyny naperedodni y u period Pershoi svitovoi viiny 1914–1918 rr. (u dokumentakh i spohadakh suchasnykiv). [International relations before and during the First World War of 1914-1918 (in documents and memoirs of contemporaries).]. (2016). Chrestomathy.Compiled by O.I. Ovcharenko, O.V. Sukhushyna. Cherkasy: Vertykal – Vertical, 587 – 588, (total 708 p.).

IV Gaagskaja konvencija o zakonah i obychajah suhoputnoj vojnyot 18 oktjabrja 1907 goda. [The IV Hague Convention on the Laws and Customs of War on Land of October 18, 1907.]. Retrieved from: http://docs.pravo.ru/document/view/18271779/15926345/

Postanovlenie IV Chrezvychajnogo Vserossijskogo sezda Sovetovot 15 marta 1918 goda o ratifikacii Brest-Litovskogo mirnogo dogovora // Dekrety sovetskoj vlasti. [Decision of the IV Extreme All Russian Congress d/d March 15, 1918 on the ratification of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk // Dooms of the Soviet regime.]. (1957). Moscow: vol. 1, 532 – 535. Retrieved from: https://ru.wikisource.org/wiki

Mirnyj dogovor mezhdu Sovetskoj Rossiej, s odnoj storony, i Germaniej, Avstro-Vengriej, Bolgariej i Turciej, s drugoj storony 3 marta 1918 g.. [The treaty of peace between Soviet Russia, on the one hand, and Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey, on the other hand, March 3, 1918.]. Retrieved from: http://www.brestobl.com/nasel/naselen/dok/1918/index.html

Povidomlennia Ministerstva zakordonnykh sprav UNR viiskovomu ministrovi heneralovi Halkynu pro stanovyshche polonenykh ta internovanykh ukraintsiv na terenakh krain Yevropy (m. Tarniv) (18 lystopada 1920 r.). [Message of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of UPR to the minister of war general Halkin on the state of prisoners of war and interned Ukrainians in the territory of nations in Europe (Tarniv city) (November 18, 1920).]. Retrieved from: http://www.hai-nyzhnyk.in.ua/doc2/1920(11)18.MZS.php


Full Text: PDF (Українська)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Archive
2014 22   29 Том 328
2015 9   22 29
2016 1   02 3-4
2017 1 2 3 4
2018 1 2 3-4
2019 1 2

User

Journal Content

Browse

Language