THE RESEARCH OF THE EVENTS OF «ZELENA BRAMA»: HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ASPECT

Iryna Ivanovna ROMANKO

Abstract


The article analyzes the state of initial phase development of the German-Soviet war, particularly the encirclement of the 6th and 12th Armies in July – August 1941 ; causes of a massive hit in captivity of the Red Army soldiers, their detention in German concentration camps; a controversial issue of the number of prisoners is initiated. Prospects of scientific studies are outlined in this segment of basic research.

One of the first large scale encirclement of the Soviet Army took place on the territory of the woodland «Zelena Brama» situated in Novoarkhangelsk District of Kirovograd Region.

This woodland became known for its grief after publishing the book by Eugeny Dolmatovsky called «Zelena Brama» in 1979. The author narrated about the battles of two armies that were encircled between the towns of Uman and Novoarkhangelsk. The woodland «Zelena Brama» became the last place where Soviet soldiers and officers put up resistance to the enemy. Thousands of them were killed and tens of thousands were taken prisoners there.

Today, the issues of national awareness and national identity and memory become exceptionally topical in terms of aggravation of Russian-Ukrainian military and information confrontation.

«Maidan» and aggression of Russia against Ukraine in 2014 became the catalyst of ideological distancing from the Soviet version of the interpretation of the events of World War II and their rethinking not only among professionals but also the public.

A complex and always important social problem of military captivity, which was ideological by Soviet historiography, has not been studied – Kremlin regime could not openly admit that in 1941–1942 such a huge mass of troops was in the hands of the enemy with its direct fault. Thus, the problem does not fit into officious myth of «the Great Patriotic War», the essence of which (according to the head of the Department of History of Ukraine during the Second World War the Institute of History of Ukraine NASU O. Lysenko) was in sacralization, glorification, romanticizing of the events that by their nature could not be right to show all the contradictions of the German-Soviet war.

Due to objective reasons Ukrainian historiography was able to launch a comprehensive analysis of the mentioned problems much later, explore biographies of prisoners of war in Ukraine. It is too far to comprehensive answers about the fact which really was the life of Soviet prisoners of war.

The theme of Soviet prisoners of war in historiography of World War II continues to be investigated in a form of a meta-narrative. Historians’ attention is concentrated on general policy issues concerning Nazi prisoners of the Red Army, their conditions of detention and exploitation on the territory of the Third Reich, the functioning of the camp system.

A full picture of Nazi policy towards Soviet prisoners of war either on the entire territory of Ukraine or its separate regions still is not restored, the scale of prisoners’ destruction in the camps and on the battlefield is not discovered. Yet research published by the scientists of our country and foreign scientists enable the author of this article to reconstruct the whole issue.

So, despite the serious historiographical heritage in the study of the tragic events of the Battle of Uman scientists’ work in this direction continues and provides a deeper and more in-depth factual and compiled materials on this subject. In part, this situation is caused by the discovery of new, previously not processed by historians source arrays complement or even radically changing the definition of the subject.

However, existing achievements «do not close» the question in full. Causes and consequences of the capture and death in captivity of the huge number of soldiers remain meaningful from the theoretical and military point of view, and also their moral and psychological state, the circumstances in places of detention and survival strategies, moral and legal rehabilitation etc.

The tasks that are needed to be studied: clarification and specification of statistics on the number of Soviet soldiers who were in captivity because of Uman «pocket»; writing some stories about definite concentration camps and studying the fate of specific prisoners in terms of social history and the history of everyday life and so on.

Defeat in Uman as previous and subsequent defeats and victories of the Red Army in the war exposed a major flaw, and perhaps a feature of Soviet troops – his slavish nature, which, actually, was a logical continuation of the totalitarian society in general. A slave-soldier by his nature was not prepared to make decisions, he was not taught to do that.

Displacement of research focus from the organizational structure of military captivity to a person of the prisoner will allow scientists to focus not only on the causes of mass destruction, but also on ways of prisoners’ surviving. This kind of problem will help to see not a monotonous group of Soviet prisoners of war, but a lot of options for life stories, national, ideological, psychological characters, which ultimately can lead to understanding the motivation of certain actions, assess their consequences.

The historical science in Ukraine faces new, extremely responsible tasks in modern conditions. First of all this is a promotion of the Armed Forces construction and the national and patriotic education of the youth. Solving these problems is possible only through a deep and comprehensive rethinking of the military experience of the past.

It is necessary to take into account the bitter experience of the initial phase of the German-Soviet war in the extreme conditions of Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine, which continues today. No mechanism of «a rapid response», psychological confusion, even helplessness cause significant losses for the society.

Focus displacement from the large-scale military operations towards the man, his life strategies, experiences, behaviours in captivity opened «parallel world» of the war. Social, verbal, intellectual, gender history, the history of everyday life and other areas of modern historical science is the most active area for answering challenges.


Keywords


historiography; Uman «pocket»; Zelena Brama; Soviet prisoners of war; concentration camp.

References


Lysenko, O. E. (2015). Overcoming «the myth of war» or what heritage we abandon: academic survey, the politics of memory and the challenge of the time (to the 70th anniversary of the victory over Nazism and fascism). Ukrayins'kyy istorychnyy zhurnal (Ukrainian historical journal), 2, 4–22 (in Ukr.)

Suprunenko, N. I. (1956). Ukraine in the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union (1941–1945). Kyiv: State Political publishing house of the USSR (in Russ.)

Telpukhovsky, B. (1959). The Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union (1941–1945): a brief review. Moscow: State Political publishing house of the USSR (in Russ.)

Dovzhenko, O. P. (1990). Ukraine in the heat of war: motion picture story, diary. Kyiv: Soviet writer (in Ukr.)

Bondarets, V. I. (1960). Prisoners of war. Captain’s notes. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya (Young guards) (in Russ.)

Bagramyan, I. Kh. (1984). That was the beginning of the war. Kyiv: Politizdat of Ukraine (Political publishing house of Ukraine) (in Russ.)

Kisiloyv, V. N., & Romanichev, N. M. (1989). Estimate consequences of South Front operations at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. Voenno-ystorycheskyy zhurnal (Journal of war history), 7, 14–21 (in Ukr.)

Zamlinsky, V. O. (compiler) (1991). The summer of 1941. Ukraine: documents and materials. Chronicle of events. Kyiv: Ukraine publishing house (in Russ.)

Butsko, O. V. (2000). Prisoners of war in the USSR (1941–1945). Ukrayins'kyy istorychnyy zhurnal (Ukrainian historical journal), 4, 120–126 (in Ukr.)

Koval, M. V. (2001). The year of 1941. The problems of historical memory. Ukrayins'kyy istorychnyy zhurnal (Ukrainian historical journal), 3, 69–91(in Ukr.)

Korol, V. Y. (2004). The tragedy of prisoners of war on the occupied territory of Ukraine in 1941–1944. Kyiv: Academy (in Ukr.)

Lysenko, O. E. (2011). The study of World War II in present-day Ukraine: principal trends and prospects. Ukrayins'kyy istorychnyy zhurnal (Ukrainian historical journal), 4, 165–194 (in Ukr.)

Marushchenko, O. (2010). Principal trends in modern Ukrainian historiography of World War II. Ukrayina v Druhiy svitoviy viyni: pohlyad z XXI st. Istorychni narysy. Knyha persha. NAN Ukrayiny, Instytut istoriyi Ukrayiny (Ukraine in World War II: the view from the 21st century. Historical essays. Volume 1. NAS of Ukraine, Institute of History of Ukraine). Kyiv: Naukova Dumka (Academic thought), 83–142 (in Ukr.)

Lysenko, O. E., & Mukovsky, I. T. (1997). Victory and self-sacrificingness: Ukrainians on the fronts of World War II. Kyiv: Poshukovo-vyd. ahentstvo «Knyha pam'yati Ukrayiny» (Search publishing agency «The Book of Memory of Ukraine») (in Ukr.)

Poluda, V. A. (2015). Prisoners of war status in Nazi camps on the territory of Reich commissariat «Ukraine» and in the zone of military occupation. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats' «Hileya: naukovyy visnyk». Seriya: Istorychni nauky (Collected research papers «Gileya: academic bulletin». Series: Historical Sciences), issue 98, 67–71(in Ukr.)

Potylchak, O.V. (1999). Exploitation of manpower resources of Ukraine by Hitlerite Germany during the years of occupation: dissertation for the degree of candidate of historical sciences. Kyiv: National Pedagogical University M.P. Dragomanov (in Ukr.)

Stetskevich, V. (2010). Soviet historiography of World War II. Ukrayina v Druhiy svitoviy viyni: pohlyad z XXI st. Istorychni narysy. Knyha persha. NAN Ukrayiny, Instytut istoriyi Ukrayiny (Ukraine in World War II: the view from the 21st century. Historical essays. Volume 1. NAS of Ukraine, Institute of History of Ukraine). Kyiv: Naukova Dumka (Academic thought), 43–82 (in Ukr.)

Fasolnyak, Y. Y. (2012). Some aspects of Uman defensive operation in the light of new documents. Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky: Naukovi zapysky z ukrayins'koyi istoriyi: zbirnyk naukovykh stattey (Academic transactions in Ukrainian History: academic bulletin), issue 29, 240–244 (in Ukr.)

Shevchenko, S. (2011). In Babenko, O. (Ed.). The historiography of defensive battles in Kirovograd Region in summer of 1941 (local history studies of Soviet period and the period of independent Ukraine). Krayeznavchyy visnyk Kirovohradshchyny (Local History bulletin of Kirovograd Region), issue VI. Kirovohrad: Central Ukraine publishing house, 27–34 (in Ukr.)

Mdller, C. (2001). Mass extinction – Stalag 305 in Ukraine in 1941–1944. – MPhil: Schulenburg-Leine (in Germ.)

Schtrait, K. (2009). Trans. from German by I. Diakonov . «They are not our brothers». Wehrmacht and Soviet prisoners of war in 1941–1945. Moscow: Russian historical society (in Russ.)

The warfare of Germany against the Soviet Union, 1941–1945: documentary exposition. (1994). Ryurupa, R. (Ed.), transl. from German by T. Pereverzeva. Berlin: Blank & Reschke (in Russ.)

Tippelskirch, K. von. (2001). History of World War II 1939–1945. Transl. from German by M. A. Zakharchenko. Moscow: ACT; St.Petersburg: Poligon (in Russ.)

Schtrait, K. (2005). Soviet prisoners of war in Germany. Vtoraya myrovaya voyna: vzhlyad yz Hermanyy (World War II: view from Germany). Moscow: Eksmo; Yausa, 233–258 (in Russ.)

Müller, K.-D. (2008). Soviet prisoners of war in and internees. Viys'kovyy polon i internuvannya. 1939–1956. Pohlyad cherez 60 rokiv: materialy mizhnar. nauk. konf. (Military captivity and internment. 1939–1956. View in 60 years: materials of international scientific conference). Kyiv: Parliament publishing house (in Russ.)

Shevchenko, V. (2008). Fascist occupation regime in Ukrain and the fate of prisoners of war (1939–1944). Military captivity and internment. 1939–1956. View in 60 years: materials of international scientific conference. Kyiv: Parliament publishing house (in Ukr.)

Vronska, T. V. (2015). In O. E. Lysenko (Ed.). The militaries in encirclement of the first «pockets» in 1941: right and suppression. Traven' 1945 roku u naukovomu dyskursi, natsional'niy svidomosti ta istorychniy pam'yati: zb. materialiv mizhnar. nauk. konf. (May 1945 in academic survey, national consciousness and historical memory: bulletin of materials of international scientific conference). Kyiv: HUOU (in Ukr.)

Schneer, A. (2005). Captivity: Soviet prisoners of war in Germany, 1941–1945 Moscow: Bridges of culture; Jerusalem: Gesharim (in Russ.)

Pastushenko ,T. (2011). The study of the problem of Soviet prisoners of war in World War II: the view in the light of everyday history. Storinky voyennoyi istoriyi Ukrayiny: zb. nauk. statey (Pages of military history of Ukraine: collected research papers. Kyiv: Institute of History of Ukraine of NASU, issue 14, 37–45 (in Ukr.)

Pastushenko, T. (2014). In O. E. Lysenko (Ed.). From the outlaw to the «unknown hero» of war. The character of a Soviet prisoner of war in the official ideology and Soviet literature. Borot'ba za Ukrayinu v 1943–1944 rr.: vlada, zbroyni syly, suspil'stvo. Zb. nauk. prats' (Struggle for Ukraine in 1943–1944: power, armed forces, society. Collected research papers). Kyiv: Institute of History of Ukraine of NASU, 587–597 (in Ukr.)

Levykin, V., & Pastushenko, T. (2011). On both sides of the front: the problem of Soviet prisoners of war in World War II. Ukrayina v Druhiy svitoviy viyni: pohlyad z XXI st. Istorychni narysy. U dvokh knyhakh. Knyha druha (Ukraine in World War II: the view from the 21st century. Historical essays. In two volumes. Volume 2). NAS of Ukraine, Institute of History of Ukraine. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka (Academic thought), 340–385 (in Ukr.)

Pastushenko, T. (2015). In O. E. Lysenko (Ed.).

Breakout of Kiev encirclement by the Red Army units in 1941: reasons for defeat and losses. Storinky voyennoyi istoriyi Ukrayiny: zbirnyk naukovykh statey (Pages of military history of Ukraine: collected research papers). Kyiv: Institute of History of Ukraine of NASU, issue 17, 61–76 (in Ukr.)

Vronska, T. V., & Pastushenko ,T. V. (2015). The back side of the war: historical and social legal portrait of Soviet people in encirclement. Ukrayins'kyy istorychnyy zhurnal (Ukrainian historical journal), 2, 22–41(in Ukr.)

Zabolotny, O. M.(2012). The status of Soviet prisoners of war on the territory of Ukraine 1941–1944: dissertation for the degree of candidate of historical sciences. Kiev: National University T. Shevchenko (in Ukr.)

Myahkiy, I. M. (2015).Concentration camps of prisoners of war in Ukraine in 1941–1943 (in accordance with the documents of CSAGA of Ukraine). Arkhivy Ukrayiny (Archives of Ukraine), issue 3, 101–114 (in Ukr.)

Anikanova, T. I., Raikhtsaum, A. L. et al. (1994). Reference book about storing places of documents about German Nazi camps, ghettos, other places of forced confinement and forcible removal of people to work in Germany and other countries of Europe during the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945. Moscow: Rosaechives (Russian Archives) (in Russ.)

Dubik, M. G.(Ed.) (2000). Reference book about camps, prisons and ghettos on the occupied territory of Ukraine (1941–1944). Kyiv: Ukrainian national fund «Mutual understanding and reconciliation» (in Ukr.)

Camps, prisons and ghettos on the occupied by Nazis territory of Kirovohrad Region. Compiler and comments by Ivan Petrenko. Retrieved from http://dariko.kr-admin.gov.ua/zmi/zdp/2014-zdp4.pdf. (in Ukr.)

Abramets, D. V., Torgalo, Y. V. et al. (2013). The book of memory of stalag 349 (Uman). Uman: «Vizavi» publishing house (in Ukr.)

Krymovska, S. (2012, May). Uman gives back the names to «Soviet traitors» posthumously: ascertainment of the names of the fallen in «Uman pocket». Molod Cherkashchyny (Youth of Cherkasy Region) (in Ukr.)

Hryhorenko, T. V. (2013). History of Uman District: bibliographical guide. Uman: «Vizavi» publishing house (in Ukr.)

Melnichenko, M. (1994, November). Uman pocket: genocide closely. Cherkaskiy kraj (Cherkasy Region) (in Ukr.)

Petrichenko, N. (1993, December) .V. K. Pavelkovsky: head of underground patriotic group, took part in release of prisoners of war from «Uman pocket». Umanska zorya (Uman dawn) (in Ukr.)

Makarova, T. P. (2010). On the roads of Victory: bibliographical guide (to the 65th Anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War). Kirovohrad: Central Ukrainian publishing house (in Ukr.)

Bratchenko, I. (2000, August). The tragedy near the village of Pidvysoke where in summer 1941 the 6th and 12th armies were encircled and fell. Narodne slovo (People’s word) (in Ukr.)

Vovchenko, V. (2009, July). Everlasting grief of Zelena Brama. Zori nad Synyukhoyu (Stars over Synyukha) (in Ukr.)

Kravchenko, N. (2007, April). There was a concentration camp here. Novhorodkivski visti (Novhorodkivka news) (in Ukr.)

Mativos, Y. (2007, July). The tragedy and heroism of Zelena Brama; pages of immortality. Kirovohradska Pravda (Kirovohrad truth) (in Ukr.)

Fedoseyeva, R., & Shurapov, V. (2005). Respect to you, the soldier: monograph. Kirovohrad: KOD (in Ukr)

Dolmatovsky, E. A. (1989). Zelena Brama: Documentary legend about one of the first battles of the Great Patriotic War.Third edition. Moscow: Political publishing house (in Russ.)

Dolmatovsky, E. A. (1982). It was. Poet’s notes. Moscow: Sovetskiy pisatel (Soviet writer) (in Russ.)

Dolmatovsky, E. A. (1982, June). New pages of «Zelena Brama». Cherkaska Pravda (Cherkasy truth) (in Ukr.)

Khizenko, I. A. (1963). Pages returned to life. Moscow: Voyenizdat (Military publishing house) (in Russ.)

Datsenko ,V. (2013). Zelena Brama: returning to the legend. Kirovohrad: Imex-Ltd (in Ukr.)

Datsenko, V. (2009, April). They have passed through the hell: 11 April – International day of the liberation of prisoners of fascism. Narodne slovo (People’s word) (in Ukr.)

Datsenko, V. (2015, April). To the memory of those who have passed through the hell of Nazi death camps. The first electronic newspaper. Retrieved from http://persha.kr.ua/news/42420-pamyati-tix-xto-projshov-cherez-peklo-nacistskix-taboriv-smerti.html (in Ukr.)

Kovalchuk, M. (2006). Fire encirclement: heroic deed and tragedy of Zelena Brama heroes: fiction and documentary story about a little known page in history at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. Ternopil: Aston (in Ukr.)

Panasenko, O. V. (2014). Pages in history of Kirovohrad Region occupation 1942–1944. Concentration camp at Abadash station. Mizh Buhom i Dniprom. Naukovo-krayeznavchyy visnyk Tsentral'noyi Ukrayiny (Between the Bug and the Dnieper. Scientific and local history bulletin of Central Ukraine), issue II. Kirovohrad: Central Ukraine publishing house, 264–271(in Ukr.)

Pahirya, O. Places of Nazi terror on the territory of Kirovohrad Region, 1941–1944. Muzey «Terytoriya teroru» (Museum «The territory of terror»). Retrieved from http://territoryterror.org.ua /uk/ publicatiobs/ details/? newsid=487 (in Ukr.)

Parrish, M. (1989, June). Soviet Generals in German captivity Survey. 66–86. (in Eng.)

Maslov, O. (2010). Losses of the Soviet generals as prisoners of war on the territory of the Ukrainian SSR (1941–1943). Ukrayins'kyy istorychnyy zhurnal (Ukrainian historical journal), 3, 30–45 (in Ukr.)

Liskin, Y. A. (2010). Hiding places of the Great Patriotic War. Army commander Ponedelin and others . Moscow: Sputnik (Satellite) (in Russ.)

Chorny, O. (2011). In O. Babenko(Ed.). Army commander P.G. Ponedelin in reminiscences of the participants of tragic events in the summer of 1941. Krayeznavchyy visnyk Kirovohradshchyny (Local history bulletin of Kirovohrad Region), issue VI. Kirovohrad: Central Ukraine publishing house, 54–66 (in Ukr.)

Marinchenko, O.O. (2013). Demographic measurement of defeat in 1941: the scale of losses of WPRA by military prisoners of war on the territory of Ukraine. Ukrayins'kyy istorychnyy zhurnal (Ukrainian historical journal), 3, 151–171 (in Ukr.)

Nuzhdin, O. I. (2016). Uman pocket: the tragedy of the 6th and 12th armies. Moscow:Yausa Catalogue (in Russ.)

Nuzhdin, O. I. (2011). The battle near Uman: the tragedy of the 6th and 12th armies. Yekaterinburg: Ural University publishing house (in Russ.)

Isayev, A. V. (2004). From Dubno to Rostov. Moscow: AST publishing house (in Russ.)

Lepsky, V., & Rusin. O. The debt of memory and the call of the heart. Cherkaskiy kray (Cherkasy Region). Data portal of reliable news. Retrieved from http://kray.ck.ua/suspilstvo/itemlist/user/62-cherkaskiykray (in Ukr.)

Rybchenko, L.(2011). The problem of calculation of military losses in the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War. Pereyaslavs'kyy litopys: zbirnyk naukovykh statey (Pereyaslav chronicle: collection of research papers), issue 2, 92–97 (in Ukr.)

Klyuyenko, D. M. (1994). The tragic fate of the 6th and 12th Soviet armies in Ukraine (June – August 1949). Ukrayins'kyy istorychnyy zhurnal (Ukrainian historical journal), 5, 40–48. (in Ukr.)

Petrov, B.(1994). What did Hitler and Mussolini do in Uman in September 1941? Ukrayins'kyy istorychnyy zhurnal (Ukrainian historical journal), 1, 82–87 (in Ukr.)

Hrytsyuk, V. (2010). Strategic and front operations of the Great Patriotic War on the territory of Ukraine. Kyiv: Institute of History of Ukraine of NASU (in Ukr.)

Kuznetsova, A. (2009, August). Uman pocket: the view from present-day Moscow. Ukraine-Centre (in Russ.)

Yeletsky, V. Workshop «Zelena Brama: heroism and a heavy heart». Website «Zelena Brama 1941». Retrieved from http://parabellum1941. narod.ru/simple30.html (in Ukr.)

Babenko, O. (Ed.). (2011). Local history bulletin of Kirovohrad Region. Issue VI. Special issue devoted to the 70th anniversary of tragic events in Zelena Brama: «Zelena Brama: heroism – tragedy – memory». Materials of theoretical and practical conference. Kirovohrad: Central Ukraine publishing house (in Ukr.)

Kucher, V. I. (2011) Deserters: war criminals or hostages of tragic circumstances. Visnyk Cherkas'koho un-tu. Seriya: Istorychni nauky (Bulletin of Cherkasy University. Series: historical sciences), issue 202, 99–107 (in Ukr.)

Frolov, Y. (2001). Destructors of the empire of the USSR. 1938–1945. In 3 volumes. Vol. 3. Donetsk: Donetchina (Donetsk Region) (in Russ.)

Kostenko, Y. (2001). Moral and psychological state of the Red Army during the first battles (June 1941). Voyenna istoriya (War history), 3–4. Retrieved from http://warhistory.ukrlife.org/3_4_02_5.htm (in Ukr.)

Dereiko, I. I. (2012). Local units of German army and police in Reich commissariat «Ukraine» (1941–1944). Kyiv: Institute of History of Ukraine of NASU (in Ukr.)


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Archive
2014 22   29 Том 328
2015 9   22 29
2016 1   02 3-4
2017 1 2 3 4
2018 1 2 3-4

User

Journal Content

Browse

Language