MAID OF HONOR M. VASILTCHYKOVA’S PEACE MISSION IN 1915

Olena Victorovna SUHUSHYNA

Abstract


It is noted that the failure of «lightning war» led managers of Kaiser’s Germany to seek a separate peace, especially with Russia, which could lead to the elimination of the Eastern Front. The article deals with the origin, lifestyle, family relationships and acquaintances of Princess Maria Vasilchikova, that were used by German and Austrian politicians for mediation.

It is shown that in March 1915 after a private conversation with representatives of Germany and Austria-Hungary M. Vasilchikova issued their conversation in two letters to the Russian Tsar Nicholai II. On the basis of letters, it was proved that the plans of the German representatives had to convince the Russian side in their own sincerity to cease hostilities and to meet Russia in resolving its foreign policy agenda. The article deals with the position and reaction of Nicholai II and Russian Foreign Minister S. Sazonov to the first attempt of M. Vasilchikova’s mediation as one that does not deserve attention. The second stage of M. Vasilchikova’s peace mission associated with participation of Duke Ernst of Hesse and Germany’s Foreign Minister Gottlieb von Jehovah has been analyzed. It was underlined that after meeting with them Vasilchikova M. appealed to the third letter to the Russian Tsar, which urged its peaceful intentions of Germany and asked for direct talks with the German-Austrian emissaries on the neutral country of his representative.

The author indicated that M. Vasilchikova’s trip to Petrograd in December 1915 was the last attempt to convince Nicholai II, S. Sazonov, and Empress in peaceable dispositionof Germany and Austria-Hungary to Russia. The article highlights that S. Sazonov disobligingly accepted it, and the Emperor after aresonant publicityordered to cease its activities and expelled from St. Petersburg.


Keywords


M. Vasilchikova; separate peace; letters; S. Sazonov; E. of Hesse; G. von Jehovah; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

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