Olena Victorovna SUHUSHYNA


It is noted that the failure of «lightning war» led managers of Kaiser’s Germany to seek a separate peace, especially with Russia, which could lead to the elimination of the Eastern Front. The article deals with the origin, lifestyle, family relationships and acquaintances of Princess Maria Vasilchikova, that were used by German and Austrian politicians for mediation.

It is shown that in March 1915 after a private conversation with representatives of Germany and Austria-Hungary M. Vasilchikova issued their conversation in two letters to the Russian Tsar Nicholai II. On the basis of letters, it was proved that the plans of the German representatives had to convince the Russian side in their own sincerity to cease hostilities and to meet Russia in resolving its foreign policy agenda. The article deals with the position and reaction of Nicholai II and Russian Foreign Minister S. Sazonov to the first attempt of M. Vasilchikova’s mediation as one that does not deserve attention. The second stage of M. Vasilchikova’s peace mission associated with participation of Duke Ernst of Hesse and Germany’s Foreign Minister Gottlieb von Jehovah has been analyzed. It was underlined that after meeting with them Vasilchikova M. appealed to the third letter to the Russian Tsar, which urged its peaceful intentions of Germany and asked for direct talks with the German-Austrian emissaries on the neutral country of his representative.

The author indicated that M. Vasilchikova’s trip to Petrograd in December 1915 was the last attempt to convince Nicholai II, S. Sazonov, and Empress in peaceable dispositionof Germany and Austria-Hungary to Russia. The article highlights that S. Sazonov disobligingly accepted it, and the Emperor after aresonant publicityordered to cease its activities and expelled from St. Petersburg.


M. Vasilchikova; separate peace; letters; S. Sazonov; E. of Hesse; G. von Jehovah; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs


E. von, Falkenhayn. (2014). The High Command of 1914–1916 in its important decisions M.: Kuchkovo field. 336 (in Russ.)

Tsіt, by Z. (1991). Zeman. Parvus – Merchant of Revolution / Z. Zeman, V. Sharlay. New York: Telex. 330(in Russ.)

Paleolog, M. (1991). Tsarist Russia during World War II. M.: Internat. relationship, 240 (in Russ.)

Buchanan, J. (2001). Memoirs of a diplomat: Memories, memoirs. M.; Mn .: Harvest, 400 (in Russ.)

Spiridovich A. I. (2015). Great War and the February Revolution of 1914–1917. M.: Direct Media. 1290. – E-resource – http: //–1917-gg.html (in Russ.)

Lemke, M. K. (2003). 250 days in Tsarist rate 1914–1915. Mn.: Harvest, 448 (in Russ.)

Bertie, Lord. (1927). Behind the scenes of the Entente. Diary of the British Ambassador in Paris. 1914–1919. Bertie; transl. from English. M.; L.: State. Publishing House, 230 (in Russ.)

Taneyev (Vyrubova) A. A. (2000). Pages of my life / A. Vyrubova. M.: Good. 320 (in Russ.)

Mel’gunov, S. P. (1957). Legend of a separate peace (the eve of the Revolution) / S. P. Mel’gunov. Paris. 505.

Semenikov, V. P. (1926). Romanovs’ Policy on the eve of the revolution (by the Entente against Germany) new documents. M.-L.: State. Publishing House, 247 (in Russ.)

Dyakonova, I. A. (1984). Concluding separate contacts Tsarist Russia and Imperial Germany in World War I. Questions of history. 4, 83-90 (in Russ.)

Evdokimova, N. (1985). Between East and West. Problems of separate peace diplomacy and maneuvers of the Austro-German bloc in the 1914–1917 biennium. L.: LSU Press, 166 (in Russ.)

Solovyov, O. (1986). Doomed Alliance. The conspiracy of the imperialists against the peoples of Russia: in 1914–1917. M.: Thought, 260 (in Russ.)

Shatsillo, K. V. (1970). Attempts to separate negotiations during the First World War (March – May 1915). Questions of history, 9, 105–112 (in Russ.)

Bokhanov, A. N. (2008). Nicholai II. M.: Veche, 528 (in Russ.)

Starikov, N. S. (2012). 1917. The answer is «Russian» Revolution. SPb.: Peter, 510 (in Russ.)

Multatuli, P. (2013). Foreign Policy Emperor Nicholai II (1894–1917). M.: «FIV» Publishing House, 840 (in Russ.)

The World Wars of the twentieth century: in 4 Vol. Bk. 1. (2002).The First World War. East. Essay. Moscow: Nauka, 686 (in Russ.)

Utkin, A. I. (2001). The First World War. M.: Algorithm, 592 (in Russ.)

Bykov, M. Mission of honor Masha V. Forgotten pages of the Great War. – E-Resource – (in Russ.)

Lukoyanov, I. V. (2014). Russian separate peace (1914–1917.): From foreign policy in the internal political problem. Herald of Vyatka State University of Humanities, 80–93 (in Russ.)

International relations before and during the First World War, 1914–1918 (2016). (In documents and memoirs of contemporaries). Readings / Authors-compilers A. I. Ovcharenko, O. V. Suhushyna. Cherkasy: Vertical, 708.

The International relations in the era imperialism (1935, 1915). Documents from royal archives and Provisional Government 1878–1917 biennium. Series III. 1914–1917. M.-L.: Publishing House, (hereinafter – The International relations in the era imperialism). T. 7. ch. 1. 14 January – 23 May, 568 (in Russ.)

The International relations in the era imperialism(1915). T. 7. ch. 2. 14 January – 23 May, 535 (in Ukr.)

The International relations in the era imperialism (1915). T. 8. сh. 1. 24 / 11 May – 16 / 3 October, 578 (in Ukr.)

Sazonov, S. D. (2002). Memories. Mn.: Harvest, 368 (in Russ.)

Asian Turkey Section: for secret documents used (1924). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. M.: Litizdat People’s Commissariat, 383 (in Russ.)

Ludendorff, E. (2005). My memories of the war 1914–1918. M.: AST, Mn.: Harvest, 800 (in Russ.)

Yemets, V. A. (1977). Essays on Russian foreign policy in the period of the First World War. Relations between Russia and its allies on matters of war. M.: Nauka, 368 (in Russ.)

The First World War in the assessment of his contemporaries: the power and the Russian society. 1914–1918: Vol. 4. M.: Political Encyclopedia, 2014. Vol. 1. Evolution of opinions, 636 (in Russ.)

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.
2014 22   29 Том 328
2015 9   22 29
2016 1   02 3-4
2017 1 2 3 4
2018 1 2 3-4


Journal Content